Scalp diseases that are frequently caused include:
1. Seborrheic dermatitis
Seborrheic Dermatitis is a form of chronic recurrent dermatitis caused by the growth of Malassezia (fungus) stimulated by seborrhea. The cause of the disease may be related to immunity, inheritance, hormones, nerves and environmental factors. The scalp area begins to undergo mild flushing patches, covered with grayish white scaly scales, with mild itching, then a rash spreads, exhibiting greasy scaly patches; in severe cases, exudation, thick sputum, and odor can be found over the entire scalp. It may cause hair loss or thinning. If these diseases are not treated in time, they will cause other diseases, which will take longer and become more difficult to treat.
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease in which body cells attack themselves causing the rapid accumulation of skin cells. This accumulation of cells causes scaling of the skin surface. Attacks on skin cells can also cause redness and inflammation of the skin, covered with white silver scales or plaques.
3. tinea capitis
Tinea capitis is a disease mainly caused by a superficial fungal infection of the skin: Microsporum, Epidermophytes and Trichophyton. Some have a tendency to attack hair shafts and hair follicles. It is very common in children, and less common in adults. And it is very contagious.
This is an inflammatory reaction that occurs in the exposed area or beyond after single or multiple exposure of skin or mucous membrane to exogenous substances. It is characterized by erythema, swelling, papules, blisters and even bullae. Most of the subjective symptoms are itchy and burning or painful. In severe cases, inflammation of the anaphylaxis of the substance can cause itching and hair loss on the scalp, for example, allergies due to contact with chemicals.
5. Alopecia areata
This is a sudden onset of plaque-like alopecia skin disease within a limited area. The scalp is normal in the lesion, and there is no inflammation or subjective symptoms. This happens when the immune system attacks healthy hair follicles. In the case of persistent disease, multiple round or elliptical patches may be seen with increased hair loss, expansion, and fusion into an irregular shape. In severe cases, the hair falls out completely and the person becomes completely bald.
6. Lichen planopilaris
Lichen planopilaris is a recurrent pruritic disease that begins with a small, independent, red rash or purple bulge that is itchy and then fuses with each other and becomes a rough and scaly plaque, resulting in an inflamed scalp. It is thought to be caused by an immune system malfunction. It often occurs in young adult women and can produce scalp shedding and dandruff.
7. Scalp Folliculitis
Folliculitis is a purulent inflammation in hair follicles when bacteria or fungi (such as Staphylococcus aureus) infect hair follicles. At the beginning, it is a red-filled papule that coincides with the follicular orifice or begins with follicular impetigo. It develops rapidly into a papular pustule, which runs through the hair in the middle, and the area around reddens and exhibits inflammation, followed by dry scarring. Severe cases of folliculitis may cause scarring, permanent hair loss caused by damage to hair follicles, and cellulitis.
This is divided into pathological and physiological dandruff.
Physiological dandruff is common in adults. It is a furfur-like, white smear of epidermal cells that is constantly metabolized in hair and is not easy to detect when it falls off.
Pathological dandruff refers to the excessive proliferation of scalp epithelial cells caused by bacterial infection, fungal infection, or other physical or chemical damage, which causes the stratum corneum cells to fall off in the form of white or gray scaly scurf.